The communal settlements in southern Kunene, located near Fransfontein, are inhabited by various ethnic groups, mostly by Damara, Nama and Ovaherero. Under South African rule, the area was part of the Damaraland homeland. In contrast to the other research regions included in the project, Fransfontein has a more favourable connection with Namibia’s urban centres, and wage labour plays a more important role. Households usually possess less livestock than in the north, and people have to rely on diverse economic strategies to make a living. Nonetheless, pastoralism still shapes daily life in the communal settlements.